The first seminar speaker, Edgar Elzerman, a former Ahold executive who now has his own consulting company, identified five retailers that are making strong competitive moves in Europe: Lidl, Mercadona, Carrefour, Biedronka, and Jumbo. Each of the retailers has a strong private label programme that is contributing to its success. The second speaker was Jim Hertel of the US consulting firm Willard Bishop. He examined five trends that are changing the US marketplace: upscale retailing, extreme value retailing, e-commerce, healthy products and niche retailing. Each of these trends are creating opportunities and challenges for US retailers.